Hadrian bust

Roman Emperor from 117 to 138 Hadrian Biography, Full Name, Achievement.

Hadrian Full Name?

Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus

Hadrian Biography/Wikipedia

On August 117 ad returning from a campaign in the East one of Rome’s greatest Emperor’s Trajan dies in Anatolia a day later his wife Platina declares the Trajan on his deathbed had adopted his first cousin Hadrian.

As his successor now the ruler of the largest and most powerful empire the world has yet known the new emperor is faced with the momentous decision of either expanding or securing the Empire’s fragile frontiers his decision will come to have colossal consequences for the Empire’s future and eventually secure Hadrian’s name as being one of the greatest and most unconventional of all of Rome’s Emperors.

Who was emperor Hadrian?

when was King Hadrian born? where was Hadrian born?

The man was known to history as the Roman Emperor Hadrian or Publius alias had Rihanna’s was born on the 10th of January 76 AD in the southern Spanish city of Italica his mother Domitia Paulina was of Spanish descent her family hailing from the city of Cadets modern-day Cadiz which is one of the wealthiest cities in Roman Spain.

A year before Hadrian’s birth de Mesilla had also parented a daughter named Elliot Domitia Paulina Hadrian’s father Publius alias had Rihanna’s Alfa was a wealthy Roman senator who had served with distinction with the Roman army in North Africa and whose mother Opia was the sister of Marcus or pious try honest.

Hadrian bust

portrait of Hadrian

Roman emperors born in Spain?

Greek emperor names: Roman Hadrian

The father of the future Roman Emperor Trajan and that maybe young Hadrian Trajan second cousin once removed which was a family connection that would prove to be crucial for all concerned including Rome itself over the coming years the Roman Empire of the late 1st century was vast having been gradually expanded over the previous three centuries in various wars against rival kingdoms.

Tribes throughout Europe and beyond this meant that by the time of Hadrian’s birth few if any rivals could match its wealth technological advancement and most importantly its military which was arguably the most advanced organized.

The capable of fighting machine the world had seen up until that time after the death of Julius Caesar by assassination in 44 BC his nephew Augustus had claimed power in a bloody civil war in which he defeated the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and made himself the first Roman Emperor.

Since then despite the Senate’s continued existence control over the empire lay in the hands of the emperors in collaboration with the Roman army which would itself become the real arbiter of power in the Empire over the following centuries as no Emperor could hope to last for long without the powerful backing of the legions.

Hadrian Rome emperor

Adrian Roman emperor or Adriano emperor

At the time of Hadrian’s birth, the emperor of Rome was Vespasian who had himself seized power with the backing of the eastern regions of the Roman army in 69 AD however after his death in 79 AD supreme power Rome had been handed down to Vespasian’s children Titus.

Then later demit Ian who would himself rule the Empire for 15 years Hadrian who was 9 or 10 in 86 ad was still living in Spain at this time however his world and destiny would soon change forever where both his mother and father suddenly died meaning that he and his older sister with the placed under the protection of Publius a Tiana’s and their second cousin Trajan who by this time was an important army officer with his legionary command.

After his parent’s death, Hadrian initially stayed in Spain for four years but was later summoned by his cousin to Rome in around 91 AD at around the same time the Trajan was given the powerful position of consul however although Trajan liked Hadrian had been born in the Spanish city of Italica.

Saw himself as an upstanding Roman he nonetheless faced resentment and ridicule from the old Roman nobility who did not take well to anyone from the provinces who aspired to an office within the imperial capital over the coming years Hadrian would continue his education whilst in Rome expanding his knowledge to a great extent even earning himself the nickname Greek lling due to his love of all things Greek indeed Grecian culture would become one of the greatest influences and loves of Hadrian’s life.

However, this nickname would not be seen by Trajan as anything but an insult as he was interested only in military matters and matters about Roman politics despite his cousin’s concerns Hadrian was an avid pupil and according to accounts became a student of the arts as well as architecture and also proved himself to be ambitious and a good public speaker but after concluding his academic education.

Hadrian accomplishments

what was an important achievement of the emperor Hadrian?

Hadrian achievements or Artistic achievement

Hadrian later returned to Spain where he was further educated in more practical pursuits such as outdoor sports and hunting which were, in essence, a kind of basic training for military service and in particular Borja ting which became one of Hadrian’s favorite pastimes historical accounts also claimed that Hadrian had something of a paradoxical personality stating that he was austere and genial dignified and playful dilatory and quick to act stingy and generous deceitful and straightforward cruel and merciful and always in all things changeable whilst other records credit.

How did He become emperor?

Hadrian is having good leadership qualities as well as bad whilst exhibiting the fur havior courtier and the craft of a marketer but above all, he was a visionary genius despite being vain intolerant and murderous when he was aged 18 Hadrian returned to Rome to take a role in the Imperial administration as a judge.

Before joining the Army as a Tribune or officer and serving with various legions near the river Danube in Eastern Europe and after proving his ability he was promoted and posted to the fifth Legion in the modern Balkans where according to accounts of the time he served with distinction then in 96 AD the emperor.

When did He become emperor

Domitian was assassinated by court officials prompting the Roman Senate to appoint Marcus Kukai as Nava as Rome’s new Emperor which was a strange choice as Nerva was old and childless meaning that he was bound to be Emperor for only a short time which would soon prove to be the case as well as being elderly Nava was also unpopular with the Roman army.

Because of this, he appointed Hadrian’s cousin Trajan as Co Emperor and also made him his adopted son and therefore his successor just to obtain the backing of the Roman army indeed it has even suggested the Nerva was forced by Trajan to name him as his successor as if he didn’t.

Trajan would depose him by force but whatever the truth this agreement was met with favor within the ranks of the military as Trajan was popular with the ordinary Roman soldiers and given nervous age Trajan was likely to become emperor sooner rather than later in a matter of months Trajan, as well as Hadrian.

Roman emperor

Roman profile

Had been catapulted into the limelight of power within Rome and as Trajan had no children Hadrian was now one of the frontrunners to become the next Emperor but this was soon made more likely when only one year in four months after attaining power Nerva died meaning that Trajan was proclaimed emperor of Rome in 98 AD this accession to power awesome art considerable turning point in Roman history.

Hadrian’s predecessor

Trajan and Hadrian

As Trajan was the first Roman Emperor other than Claudius to have been born outside Italy itself and therefore the hostility the Roman aristocracy had previously shown Trajan was soon to reap its consequences as the new emperor proceeded to promote more Outsiders including Hadrian two powerful positions within his administration as well as within the Senate despite being related to Trajan Hadrian rise to power was also aided by his close ties with Trajan’s wife Pompey a Platina.

Pompey a Platina who was a wealthy woman in her own right her fortune coming from a successful construction business and she liked Hadrian himself had also been born in Spain it is no exaggeration to state burnt Platina along with her husband and a Tiana’s were the key figures in Hadrian’s rise to power and influence within Rome as they had raised and protected young Hadrian as well as his sister after their father’s death and a Tiana’s would even become Hadrian’s bodyguard in the years to follow and many historians credit.

Publius Aelius hadrianus

Platina as having been responsible for Hadrian’s education in Greek culture which she held to be superior to Rome’s own as her marriage to Trajan was childless Latina perhaps looked upon young Hadrian as her son and in fact, was said to have adored Hadrian.

Sabina Hadrian

she would later in around 100 AD arrange the marriage of Hadrian to her grand-niece Vivier Sabina when he was 24 and vibius Sabina was 14 however Hadrian was less than pleased about the arrangement being more disposed to the intimate company of men and his marriage to vibius Sabina would prove to be notoriously distant and cold in 101 AD.

Hadrian was elected as Questor within the Roman Senate which meant that he would act as a go-between of kinds between the Emperor and the Senate particularly as there were by this time a large number of senators who liked Hadrian hailed from the provinces but there remained a hardcore of the old Roman aristocracy within the chamber who resisted and resented the foreigners growing influence on one occasion.

Life of Hadrian

Hadrian is said to have had read a speech of the Emperor’s to the Senate which sparked a chorus of laughter within the chamber due to his accent and pronunciation and taking this to heart he endeavored afterward to improve his Latin and he spoke the language as well as possible that paid dividends for him as he would later go on to secure several high positions and even later become governor of Syria in 117 ad.

As real power within the Empire was based on the backing of the military it was important for Trajan to spend a large amount of time securing their approval, therefore, he sought to bring this about by embarking on his now-legendary invasion of Dasia in 101 ad which was the area of Eastern Europe around modern-day Romania the only problem was that taking on the Dacians was a risky venture as the Roman Empire had fought them before.

Reign of Hadrian

During the reign of emperor Domitian when they suffered a humiliating defeat in which an entire Legion was massacred despite this previous loss Trajan was unperturbed after assembling his armies and appointing Hadrian to his staff he crossed the natural border of the Roman Empire the river Danube into Eastern Europe had the head of – legionary columns backed up by as many as nine legions which numbered in the region of 70 to 80 thousand troops or more marking the beginning of the first station war.

Hadrian was in Trajan’s entourage at the stardom of the campaign that saw the Roman armies advanced into the heart of Dasia burning villages and settlements along the way until they met and defeated the armies of the Dacian King disabled us at the Second Battle of Tapei in September 101 AD however before the battle Hadrian was excused from military service and returned to Rome to take the post of Tribune of the plebs.

Which was an administrative position which in essence represented the interests of the public within the Roman government despite securing a victory over the Dacians Trajan grew concerned about the onset of winter and decided to wait until the following spring to resume hostilities this lull in the fighting was soon exploited by dissemblers.

To regroup his forces and launched a counter-attack in the winter of 101 to 102 ad this resulted in another defeat for the Dacians at the Battle of atom CLE see this ultimately for sedation King to sue for peace which was agreed in 102 AD with favorable terms for the Romans over their defeated enemies.

Due to this a large part of Dasia along with the Danube was ceded to Rome whilst Asia at self became a vassal like a state which would receive money and troops from Rome in return for acting as a buffer zone between it and the various migrating tribes to the east but despite surviving the war dissemblers had no intention of being Rome’s vassal.

After several years in which he used Roman money to rebuild his forces and fortifications, he launched a surprise attack in 105 AD into the regions of Dasia he had lost to Rome three years before this took Trajan by surprise at first but he soon gathered his forces and constructed a massive bridge over the Danube now named Trajan’s bridge.

Which according to accounts spanned over 3,700 feet in length this formed the gateway which Trajan’s legions used to march headlong into the Dacian heartlands once again marking the start of the second Asian war in 105 AD during this conflict Hadrian was again in Trajan’s service at least during the early stages of the campaign.

But later he went off to command his legion which helped to mark him out as a military leader and endeared him to the men under his command there were later proved to be crucial in helping to secure his popularity with the Roman army over the coming years after marching into the heart of Dasia Trajan’s legions then assaulted the Dacian capital of Sammys KATUSA in modern-day Transylvania.

After besieging the city and cutting off his supply of water the capital eventually foul and was then razed to the ground on Trajan’s orders to prevent it being used as a rallying point in the future whilst assemblers committed suicid by slitting his throat word then reached Trajan that dissemblers had hidden the contents of his massive treasury somewhere nearby and soon afterward its location was revealed to the Romans.

By a member of the Dacian Kings entourage leading to the horse recover this reportedly consisted of over 150 metric tons of gold and over 300 metric tons of silver which was then used after the Dacian war to help fund various building projects and celebrations one of which Trajan’s column still stands in Rome today.

Depicts the chain of events surrounding the Dacian walls with the fall of Sammys KATUSA Rome was finally victorious as Daysha was now firmly under its control however Trajan’s campaigns would prove to be some of the last great expansions of the empire as after his reign merely maintaining the massive expanse of Roman territory that proved to be difficult enough without the added costs in money and manpower of further expansion.

Hadrian himself had emerged from the Dacian walls as a seasoned military commander and had now also gained the first-hand experience in the everyday life soldiers had to enjoy this experience would prove crucial in the years to come as Hadrian was now expected by the legions rank-and-file who saw him as one of their own following the Dacian Wars.

Hadrian was appointed in 107 ad to be the governor of lower Pannonia on the western border of Asia parley Ezra Ward and partly due to his knowledge of the region and his people as at this time there were still several hostile barbarian tribes to the north and west including some nations who had been allied with the Dacians against Rome.

During Trajan’s campaigns, Hadrian was now despite only being in his early 30s a high-ranking general as well as the talented administrator and politician I was marked out for greater things that were borne out when in 108 AD he was elected despite his young age to become one of Rome’s two consoles which were the highest administrative position within the Roman state and represented the pinnacle of Hadrian’s political career before becoming Emperor himself after his tenure as consul ended.

Hadrian then traveled to Athens and around 112 AD where he was made the city’s chief magistrate for a short time that reaffirmed his love and connection with the city in Greece itself but not much is known about Hadrian’s life over the next few years which seems to have been a period of relative obscurity for him until once again.

He was summoned to accompany the Emperor on his next large scale military expedition against Rome’s great rival in the East Parthia in modern-day Iran the Parthians were one of the few people who could match Rome’s power they had like the Dacians been responsible for defeating and humiliating.

Roman armies in past confrontations and proved themselves to be perhaps the most stubborn and persistent of Rome’s enemies during the middle period of the empire in deeds during its various wars against Parthia Rome would continually struggle to hold.

Any of its periodic gains in the Middle Eastern region another reason for the coming war was that party had placed its puppet King onto the throne of Armenia whom Rome found unacceptable as both Rome and Parthia enjoyed a kind of shared overlordship of the kingdom of Armenia at the time that had been established during the reign of Nero.

Trajan personality

Therefore Parthia placing a king onto the Armenian throne without Rome’s approval was seen as grounds for an invasion as well as this Trajan possibly had other motives for expansion into the East as it is suggested that he wanted to also gain total control over the Eastern trade routes.

And from the Roman Empire that passed through the Persian Gulf ports in modern-day southern Iraq through which trade shipments from India and beyond passed the expedition had long been in the planning and like Trajan station campaign involved up to a dozen legions.

Once again Hadrian was appointed to Trajan’s entourage which accompanied the Emperor to successfully secure Armenia in late 114 AD after which the Roman forces marched south into Mesopotamia where they took the city of chair acts near the northern shores the Persian Gulf in 116 AD which marked the farthest extent of Rome’s eastern expansion during this campaign.

Trajan saw works

Trajan had successfully reduced the path Ian’s to the status of a near vassal state but the campaign had taken a considerable toll on his health and he was by this time in his early sixties which combined with the hundreds of miles of travel hot weather and stress soon culminated in him suffering a stroke meaning that his campaign days were over and plans were then set into place for the Emperor to return to Rome.

To recuperate before leaving the region Trajan made Hadrian the governor of Syria which effectively placed him in charge of the eastern Roman legions but surely after the Emperor left the Middle East to return to Rome in the summer of 117 ad Trajan’s health began to decline even further and he then died on the 8th of August 117 ad in Salinas.

In modern-day southern Turkey as he had no children Trajan succession had been in the state of confusion for some years however a day after the Emperor’s death his wife Pompey Platina presented a document that stated that the Emperor on his deathbed.

They adopted Hadrian as his son and successor this development was very controversial, to say the least as the emperor had not signed the document himself leading to rumors that Hadrian was Pompey a platini’s choice a successor and not Trajan’s however it is highly likely that Hadrian was Trajan’s intended successor as he was the Emperor’s highest-ranking and most experienced direct relative and the late Emperor who placed.

Hadrian in charge of the powerful eastern legions shortly before his death it was fortunate that Trajan had promoted Hadrian when he did as having the command over the eastern legions made securing the Senate’s approval much easier as well as making any rival claim elsewhere in the empire more difficult as no one else could match the sheer numbers of troops.

Hadrian now had under his command in the east troops whose loyalty was secured with the customary bonus or bribe once Hadrian was proclaimed Caesar by the eastern armies a letter was then sent to the Senate who had little choice but to accept his accession and celebrations were then held in the imperial capital and throughout Rome’s provinces to mark his accession.

Whilst Trajan before him had been in large part due to his expansionist policies one of the most successful and popular of all of Rome’s Emperor’s, in contrast, one of Hadrian’s first acts as Emperor was to withdraw his troops from Parthia and make peace there and also to withdraw some troops from the eastern part of Dasia Hadrian was now emperor of the largest and most powerful empire the world had ever known as in 117 ad.

The Roman Empire was at the very height of its power stretching from the Atlantic to the sun-baked sands of Arabia human civilization had seldom seen anything that even came close to rivaling its magnitude but the sheer size of Rome’s territories presented Hadrian with several dilemmas he was now faced with a difficult challenge of securing his own rule within Rome and then with the choice of either further expanding the Empire’s borders.

Much like his predecessor or on the other hand, consolidating Rome’s grip over the territories he already possessed this was a decision that would come to have massive consequences for the Empire’s future as well as European and world history the empire that Hadrian had inherited from Trajan was now in a state of near-unprecedented turmoil an insurrection as in 115 AD whilst Trajan had been campaigning in the East a massive revolt was beginning for the dispersed Jewish populations throughout the empire.

The Middle East these Jews had long been a thorn in the Empire’s side as they had stubbornly resisted any romanization of their culture and religion leading to various revolts from wars over the preceding century although Trajan’s expedition to Mesopotamia had been largely successful Rome’s resources mighty as they were have been stretched the limit to pay for a man his campaigns this included stripping many city Garrison’s in Rome’s provinces in the eastern empire of large numbers of troops.

which would then prove costly when the uprisings began in Egypt North Africa and Judea itself subsequently resulting in mass killings and the pillaging of many towns and cities taking place in the affected provinces and evidence suggests as many as 500,000 people were massacred in the Jewish revolts Trajan had previously pointed one of his right-hand men Lucius Quietus to deal with the uprising in place of the ailing Emperor.

He had subsequently dealt with the revolts by the time of Trajan’s death is an uprising in time became known as the ketose Wars however Quietus his success and ability did nothing but make him a target for Hadrian and his supporters who are now looking to secure their power base by alienating and eliminating any potential rivals the new Emperor remained.

The Middle East for a time overseeing the mopping up of the Jewish rebellions in the region was back in Rome the praetorian guard which was the bodyguard of the emperors under the command of Hadrian’s former Guardian Publius a Tiana’s rounded up and executed several high-ranking officials.

Whom they claimed were plotting to overthrow the new emperor these included the commander of the ketose Wars Lucius Quietus another high-ranking general Ollis Cornelius Parma and two other rival senators Lucius Publilius Celsus and guise of Vidya Sinha greenness new greenness, in particular, was seen as a threat.

Hadrian as he has sufficient wealth rank and connections to rival him indeed it had been speculated that these officials being advocates of expansion of the Empire may have caused problems for Hadrian or might even rival his claim as Emperor it, therefore, came as no surprise that these men were abducted.

And killed under the supervision of a Tiana’s while Hadrian himself remained in the East his absence from Rome gave Hadrian plausible deniability concerning the murdrs to a certain degree but there was little doubt amongst the remainder of the Senate.

Tiana’s had acted under Hadrian’s orders and there remained from this point on considerable mistrust and bad blood between the Senate and the new emperor for the remainder of his reign in an attempt to bring the Senate back on side Hadrian promised that no further executions would occur under his rule and he also promised to uphold the Senate’s Authority about it remaining the highest court in the Empire but a Tiana’s himself was soon retired but not punished and was later replaced as prefect to the praetorian guard by Hadrian’s close friend Marcius turbo.

Marcius turbo who was one of the Emperor’s most trusted and able advisors and commanders another reason for the execution of these senators have been that they were themselves close friends of the previous Emperor Trajan and also were in favor of the old Emperor’s expansionist policies which had resulted in his campaigns.

Asia and the Middle East whereas the recent revolts throughout the empire had convinced Hadrian that expansion was not only too expensive but would also undermine the stability of the provinces already under Rome’s control there was after all always a finite amount of money available and always a limited number of men of the right age to serve in the military.

Therefore endless conquest to expand the Empire, even more, would eventually result in it not being able to maintain order with this in mind the Emperor then made the momentous decision that the Roman Empire’s days of expansion were now over,

Instead, Hadrian decided that the best way to ensure the survival of the Roman Empire in the medium to long term would be to strengthen and consolidate Rome’s frontiers and also focus on the stabilization of Roman territories which would then, in theory, bring about improved levels of peace and prosperity.

After Hadrian had arrived in Rome he sought to win the support of the populace by holding celebrations both to mark the start of his reign and also to honor his predecessor Trajan which he did by publicly burning the records of all tax arrears Rome citizens owed to his government which along with other populistic measures won over the support of the plebs.

Further weakened any potential grassroots support for his opponents within the Senate it had been customary for previous Roman emperors to spend the vast majority of their reigns within the borders of Italy and indeed within Rome itself relying on messages from the provinces for information and mainly only venturing outside of Italy to lead important campaigns such as Trajan’s wars against Asia and Parthia.

However, Hadrian broke with this convention and decided to tour as many Roman provinces as he could to assess each one’s governance for himself it is recorded that he spent over half of his reign traveling outside of Rome and would often be accompanied by Vivier Sabina as well as his entourage.

Which could number up to 5,000 people in many ways given his decision to consolidate the Empire and not expand it Hadrian had to do whatever he could to not only maintain his reputation but also to maintain his connection with the Roman army who more than most would be affected by his decision not to embark on aggressive expansion this made the reasons.

Hadrian’s tour of the Empire even more crucial and also to fold as firstly he wanted to be seen to take an active interest in the governance and lives of his subjects and secondly more than anything else he had to keep the Roman army on his side to maintain his position that being said.

Hadrian knew that the eastern legions could be relied upon for the time being at least as they had been a decisive fact aid in becoming Emperor whereas the legions in the other regions of the Empire had not had a hand in his rise to power.

what did Hadrian build

Therefore he first sought to win them over by initially touring the legionary Garrison’s in Eastern Europe along the rivers the Danube as well as the Rhine when in Germany Hadrian oversaw the building of a wooden wall that was to mark the boundary of the Roman Empire in Germany and protect the citizens from the barbarians on the other side and whilst visiting the legions.

Hadrian also stro to experience the conditions and lives that everyday Roman soldiers experienced by addressing ordinary clothing and eating the same food as the troops such as bacon and vinegar and would even march with his armies on foot for 20 miles a day under the Blazing Sun as well as in winter snows but it was this willingness to mix with the troops that eventually paid dividends for the Emperor as they were soon firmly on his side by this time.

Hadrian timeline

Britannia had been under Roman control for nearly 80 years but its conquest had been a costly venture for the Roman Empire as it had been in an almost constant state of revolt ever since and so it was in 122 AD that Hadrian traveled northwest and across the English Channel to Britannia to inspect and oversee the state of the Roman occupation the south of the island was by this time largely subdued.

However, to the north in modern-day Scotland some tribes would not bend their knee to Rome and who was a near-constant source of trouble for the troops tarz would defend the Empire’s most northern Lea frontier Hadrian assessed the situation and deemed that the lands in the far north of the islands.

Were not worth the sacrifice of money and manpower that any military expedition to invade it would require and he then ordered the building of a massive 73 mile-long wall to mark the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Britannia which took six years to complete and is now known as Hadrian’s Wall.

Emperor is responsible for the pantheon and the great wall in Britain.

Hadrian

where can you hike Hadrian’s wall?

Hadrian’s Wall was one of the largest single engineering projects ever undertaken by the Roman Empire and was a statement of Hadrian’s strength as much as a defensive barrier serving as a clear warning to Britain’s northern tribes that its builders were far more powerful than they were after leaving Britain the Emperor then traveled back across the English Channel south across France and Spain and on to Eastern North Africa.

Where he led a campaign to subdue a rebellion in the area however word then reached him that a resurgent Parthia was attacking the Roman frontier Garrison’s in Mesopotamia, therefore, he then traveled east across North Africa towards the Middle East using the journey time.

To again order the construction of defensive walls along the Empire’s frontiers but also to order the construction of new towns and buildings in the areas of North Africa which had been devastated by the Jewish uprisings in the ketose walls as well as his famous wall in northern Britannia the Emperor would also construct other lengths of wall.

 

Hadrian

Arch of Hadrian

Archers of Saint Hadrian

The pantheon was constructed during the reign of the emperor

Throughout the empire which would enable Rome to control the flow of people to and from its territories and also control the flow of trade caravans which would boost tax revenue indeed the north African economy boomed during Hadrian’s reign where he is still revered to this day as one of the greatest of Rome’s Emperor’s.

Upon arriving in the Middle East Hadrian quickly concluded a peace agreement with Parthia to end the conflicts and he set about inspecting the frontier defenses in the area although Rome had annexed large portions of mass potamia.

During Emperor Trajan scam pains in the Middle, East Hadrian had decided to withdraw Rome’s armies from the region and instead settled the frontier along the river Euphrates which acted as a strong natural barrier.

However this decision to give up Rome’s recent territorial gains in the Middle East was unpopular with the Senate as Trajan’s Parthian campaign has been undertaken a great expense in both money and manpower the Senate’s disapproval.

Did not sway Hadrian and he continued with his policy of consolidating the Empire’s frontiers so that they could be maintained in the future instead of risking an overextension of Rome’s massive but still limited resources with this in mind the Emperor continued his journey northwest into Anatolia which is modern-day Turkey and eventually entered the city of Claudio polis.

Hadrian and Antinous

Claudio polis an ancient city with a history dating back to the time of the Hittite Empire and was visiting the city Hadrian saw a young man named Antinous who would later become the love of his life it was common in Greek culture for men to become lovers and indeed bisexuality was also common in Rome with both sexes.

Hadrian gay

Hadrian seems to have been homosexual at least in preference as he was after all married to his long-suffering wife vibius Sabina who herself was now further isolated and infuriated by her husband’s new lover Antinous was not of noble birth than had been noticed by Hadrian purely due to his good looks which prompted the Emperor to employ him as a servant it seems that the bond between the two steadily grew until they were virtually inseparable indeed.

He would come to celebrate and boast about his relationship with Antinous as he more and more embraced the Greek culture and lifestyle of which he was very proud in many ways Hadrian’s reign can be seen as a departure from the old-style clean-shaven Roman dominated culture in favor of a more inclusive Empire.

That embraced his constituent provinces and cultures into a Commonwealth like state in which every citizen was a member regardless of where they were born that helped ensure that all the citizens of the Empire felt like they had a stake in his continued prosperity and also helped to make further insurrections less likely on top of this opening up the hitherto conservative Roman government to non-Roman persons.

Caesar Hadrian

Of the various nations and cultures of which the Roman Empire has comprised in many ways reflected Hadrian’s background as he was himself a Spanish born Roman Emperor who held Greek culture to be one of the greatest achievements of the Classical Age Emperor Hadrian traveled to Greece itself in 124 AD where he yet again oversaw the state of its governance and during this trip.

He commissioned the building of new temples and fountains and took part in the illu Simeon mysteries which were a secretive building was in fact from the time of Augustus the Pantheon was a marvel of Roman engineering which was the largest unsupported dome in the world until the 20th century.

And was constructed from materials including stone from all over the Empire these included marble columns from North Africa which turned out on delivery to be too short for the temples entrance much to the Emperor’s displeasure indeed the adjustments needed to the entrances of the great temples can still be seen to this very day.

Hadrian’s villa

Hadrian also oversaw the final stages of the construction of his new villa located at the Tiber in the Sabin Hills which was located 18 miles from Rome and was a sprawling an opulent place twice the size of Pompeii an area it was comprised of several areas with features which differed in their style to reflect the different cultures of Rome’s many provinces and included around 30 buildings including villas libraries temples baths and theaters as well as ponds and fountains one possible reason.

When did Hadrian rule

Hadrian’s rule

Hadrian spent more than half of his reign as Emperor on the move was that he feared potential plots against him from the Roman Senate who now more than ever resented the Emperor’s rule as he had over the years continually ignored and alienated them from the process of government and filled the Senate chamber with as many of his supporters as he could another reason could be that over time.

Hadrian had become accustomed to life on the move and seems to have found life in Rome to be distasteful this resulted in him leaving the imperial capital again in the spring of 128 AD to travel to Africa during which time he again inspected the frontier and his Garrison’s,

In September of 128 AD, he returned to Greece where he once again took part in the Eleusinian mysteries whilst in Greece he also oversaw the creation of his pan Helene I am a council comprised of the various Greek city-states as the Emperor wanted to both protect and reignite Greek culture during his reign which had since Rome’s accession to dominance in the region been seen as subservient to the culture of Rome.

Interesting facts about Hadrian

Emperor Hadrian facts

Hadrian beard

The fact that Hadrian was the first Roman Emperor to wear a beard is thought by some to be a not too Greek culture as at the time Roman men did not wear bids but Greek men did after visiting Greece Hadrian crossed the Mediterranean to Egypt in October 130 ad where he paid tribute to had the tomb of Pompey the great and it was during this stay in Egypt that the emperor would experience what was for him a great tragedy as during a boat trip on the River Nile.

Hadrian fun facts

His beloved Antinous drowned on the 24th of October on the feast of Osiris the god of immortality it is unclear whether his death was an accident or suicde or even a sacrifice ordered by Hadrian himself or whatever the calls Hadrian was left devastated by the tragedy and honored the death of his lover by declaring him to be divine after which he started a cult in a terraces honor even naming a city after him as the city of Antonopoulos on the river Nile.

Antinous and Hadrian

Which was founded in his honor and statues ordered by Hadrian were built all over the Empire in his memory indeed there were even festivals and games organized in his honor and the statues and images of Antinous that survived today are the third most numerous.

After an ancient Greek cult dedicated to Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and Persephone goddess of the underworld wife of Hades the Emperor particularly focused his attention on Athens which was given a new library aqueduct and housing district as a reflection.

Hadrian’s affection for the city and as thanks for both his reception and his treatment during his time as the city’s magistrate before he became Emperor and also at this time there was a statue built of Hadrian which was placed outside the temple of Olympian Zeus in a thin.

Which was the largest temple in Greece with over 100 columns Hadrian then returned to Rome itself where he oversaw the reconstruction of the Pantheon a temple to all the gods which had initially been built during the reign of Augustus and as a mark of respect to Augustus the renovations.

Hadrian had carried out were attributed on the building itself to Marcus Agrippa Augustus his right-hand man and son-in-law to show that the original  Augustus and Hadrian himself after leaving Africa the Emperor then traveled through the Middle East until he finally returned to Greece where he oversaw the final stage of the construction of the massive temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens in 132 18.

what did Hadrian do

But it was during this time that word reached the Emperor of another large scale insurrection in Judea under the Jewish leader Simon Bar Kokhba the Roman occupation of Judea had by this time resulted in large numbers of Roman settling in the area.

Who then received tax breaks, also, the Orthodox Jews were highly resistant to Roman attempts to impose their systems of belief on the Jewish population as the Romans and Greeks had many gods while the Jews, of course, believed in only one this combined with the previous large-scale revolts.

And wars between Rome and the Jews in the Eastern Empire meant that ill-feeling and resistance were still widespread this undercurrent of discontent then erupted in 132 AD resulting in heavy losses for the Roman Garrisons in the region whereupon.

Hadrian traveled to the Middle East to put down the uprising himself eventually succeeding which according to accounts resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Jews and because of this Hadrian is still a hated figure in Israel today the Bar Kochba revolt as it is now known as more of a full-scale war than a mere local insurrection.

As the Emperor had to call upon the support of over half a dozen began’s numbering up to 100,000 troops to deal with the Jewish force which itself numbered upwards of 200,000 according to accounts however the uprising was eventually quelled afterward the Emperor abolished the province of Judea renaming it Syria Palestina and by 136 AD.

The region was once again under full Roman control this long-winded and bloody campaign in the searing heat of the Middle East had had much the same effect on he as campaigning in the region had for his predecessor Trajan resulting in a downturn in his health as by the end of it he was suffering from exhaustion and stress as well as swelling perhaps because of his ill health.

Hadrian ancient Rome

Hardrian then returned to Rome where his wife vibius Bennett died in 136 AD ending their long and bitter union and after her death, the Emperor turned his attention to the succession adopting Lucius an Onias Commodus as his son making him his heir Commodus was the son-in-law of Gaius of Vidya the greenness one of the consuls who have been executed in 118 AD and the act could be seen as one of reconciliation.

However, Commodus died on the 1st of January 138 ad prompting Hadrian then adopt full verspoor Onias arias Antoninus as his heir who would later become Emperor Antoninus Pius and when himself go on to be Emperor for nearly 23 years towards the end of his reign he then ordered that his brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus sir be honest and sir be honest his grandson Gaius Padania sphere Sall innate or both be put to death largely because sir be honest.

At the start of Hadrian’s reign been a possible candidate for the succession I was thought to be involved in an attempted coup in 137 AD by his grandson sulla NATO who wanted power for himself and although by 138 ad survey Arliss was much too old to be a viable successor his grandson sulla Natur was still young and so posed a threat to the emperor before his death sir be honest is said to have prayed.

How did Hadrian die?

Hadrian death

Hadrian would long for death but be unable to die and indeed during his final illness, Hadrian is said to have attempted suicide several times but was prevented from killing himself and by the summer of 138 AD.

When did Hadrian die?

Hadrian’s health had deserted him to such an extent that he retreated to his villa at by near modern-day Naples where on the 10th of July he died aged 62 after a reign of 21 years.

 The mausoleum of Hadrian

The temple of Hadrian

Hadrian bust

Hadrian bust

Roman emperor Hadrian portraits

The emperor was initially buried at Olli close to by but subsequently his body was taken to Rome and buried in the gardens of Domitia but once the tomb of Hadrian was completed in 139 AD his body was cremated and his ashes were placed there in a purpose-built mausoleum built by Antonius Pius which can still be seen to this day in Rome along with the ashes of his wife Livia Sabina.

His first adopted son Lucius alias which were also placed alongside him following his death Antoninus insisted that Hadrian be given divine honors leading to a temple being built for him on the Campus Martius which led to the Senate granting Antoninus the title of Pius in recognition of his final act of loyalty to Hadrian the emperor.

Hadrian is still thought of today as a complex and divisive figure by historians as some see him as an authoritarian dictator who treated the roman empire as his obsession controlling his governance himself without listening to the opinions of Rome’s Senate or people and his actions particularly in his suppression of the Jewish revolt late in his reign still earn him criticism other historians.

Memoirs of Hadrian

However, believe Hadrian was one of Rome’s greatest emperors who consolidated and prolonged the Empire’s life and who reformed and rejuvenated its government both in Rome and in its provinces some also praised him for opening up the Roman government to people from outside of Italy.

And for giving them greater influence in the Senate which had in the past been dominated by the Roman aristocracy about Hadrian the writer Pausanias in his guide to Greece stated within my own time the emperor was extremely religious in the respect he paid to the deity and contributed very much to the happiness of the various subjects he never voluntarily entered upon a wall whether.

Emperor Hadrian quotes

Hadrian was an enlightened reformer or an egotistical authoritarian will always be debated but the fact remains that were everyone cares to tread in modern-day Europe North Africa or the Middle East one stands in lands whose history was in many ways shaped by his decisions and there is no doubt that the actions he took in life transformed the future of the Roman Empire. goezytravels

Indeed the world to such a degree that the name Hadrian is still known by millions if not billions of people alive today nearly 1,900 years after his death what do you think of Emperor Hadrian was he one of Rome’s most enlightened and capable emperors or was he an authoritarian despot he used the Roman Empire and his resources to his selfish ends whilst crushing. SABHTECH

Hadrian youtube

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READ MORE: Roman Emperor from 117 to 138 Hadrian Biography, Full Name, Achievement.

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